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HOLT

Environmental Science

Active Reading Workbook

TO THE STUDENT The Active Reading worksheets can be used todevelop your reading skills. Each worksheet corresponds to aspecific section of your textbook. When you complete theseworksheets, you will reinforce both your reading skills and yourunderstanding of the content of your textbook.

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston All rights reserved. Nopart of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in anyform or by any means, electronic or mechanical, includingphotocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrievalsystem, without permission in writing from the publisher. Teachersusing HOLT ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE may photocopy complete pages insufficient quantities for classroom use only and not for resale.HOLT and the Owl Design are trademarks licensed to Holt, Rinehartand Winston, registered in the United States of America and/orother jurisdictions. Printed in the United States of America

If you have received these materials as examination copies freeof charge, Holt, Rinehart and Winston retains title to thematerials and they may not be resold. Resale of examination copiesis strictly prohibited and is illegal. Possession of thispublication in print format does not entitle users to convert thispublication, or any portion of it, into electronic format.ISBN-13:978-0-03-093101-7 ISBN-10: 0-03-093101-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 862 09 08 0706

ContentsActive Reading WorksheetsScience and the EnvironmentSection: Understanding Our Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 1 Section: The Environment and Society . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Tools of Environmental Science Section:Scientific Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 5 Section: Statistics and Models . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Section: Making InformedDecisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 TheDynamic Earth Section: The Geosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Section: The Atmosphere . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Section:The Hydrosphere and Biosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15 The Organization of Life Section: Ecosystems: Everything IsConnected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Section: Evolution . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Section: The Diversity of Living Things . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 21 How Ecosystems Work Section: Energy Flow inEcosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Section: The Cycling of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 25 Section: How Ecosystems Change . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Biomes Section: What Is aBiome?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Section: Forest Biomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Section: Grassland, Desert, and TundraBiomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Aquatic Ecosystems Section:Freshwater Ecosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 35 Section: Marine Ecosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Understanding Populations Section: HowPopulations Change in Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Section: How Species Interact with Each Other . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 41 The Human Population Section: Studying HumanPopulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Section:Changing Population Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 45 Biodiversity Section: What Is Biodiversity? . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Section: Biodiversityat Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Section: The Future of Biodiversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 51 Water Section: Water Resources . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Section: WaterUse and Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55Section: Water Pollution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 57Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston.All rights reserved.

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Active Reading Workbook

Air Section: What Causes Air Pollution? . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 59 Section: Air, Noise, and Light Pollution .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Section: AcidPrecipitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 63 Atmosphere and Climate Change Section: Climate and ClimateChange. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Section: TheOzone Shield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 67 Section: Global Warming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Land Section: How We Use Land . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Section:Urban Land Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 73 Section: Land Management and Conservation . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 75 Food and Agriculture Section: Feeding theWorld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 Section: Crops and Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Section: Animals and Agriculture. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Mining and MineralResources Section: Minerals and Mineral Resources . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 83 Section: Mineral Exploration and Mining .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Section: MiningRegulations and Mine Reclamation . . . . . . . . . . . . 87Nonrenewable Energy Section: Energy Resources and Fossil Fuels . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Section: Nuclear Energy . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91Renewable Energy Section: Renewable Energy Today . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Section: Alternative Energy andConservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Waste Section:Solid Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 97 Section: Reducing Solid Waste . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Section: Hazardous Waste . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 TheEnvironment and Human Health Section: Pollution and Human Health .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Section: BiologicalHazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105 Economics, Policy, and the Future Section: Economics andInternational Cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Section:Environmental Policies in the United States. . . . . . . . . . .109 Section: The Importance of the Individual . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 111

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Active Reading Workbook

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Skills Worksheet

Active ReadingSection: Understanding Our EnvironmentRead thepassage below and answer the questions that follow.

The agricultural revolution allowed human populations to grow atan unprecedented rate. An area of land can support up to 500 timesas many people by farming as it can by hunting and gathering. Aspopulations grew, they began to concentrate in smaller areas. Thesechanges placed increased pressure on local environments. Theagricultural revolution also changed the food we eat. The plants wegrow and eat today are descended from wild plants. During harvestseason, farmers collected seeds from plants that exhibited thequalities they desired. The seeds of plants with large kernels orsweet and nutritious flesh were planted and harvested again. Overthe course of many generations, the domesticated plants became verydifferent from their wild ancestors. IDENTIFYING MAIN IDEAS Onereading skill is the ability to identify the main idea of apassage. The main idea is the main focus or key idea. Frequently amain idea is accompanied by supporting information that offersdetailed facts about main ideas.Read the question and write theanswer in the space provided.

1. Why did populations concentrate in smaller areas during theagricultural revolution?

In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrasethat best answers the question.

______ 2. Which of the following best describes the theme of thepassage? a. The agricultural revolution changed human foodpreferences. b. Some plants today are similar to their ancestors.c. Farming replaced hunting and gathering. d. Agriculturalcommunities developed from hunter-gatherer communities, and thepractice of agriculture introduced new environmental problems.

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Active Reading continuedVOCABULARY DEVELOPMENTRead the questionand write the answer in the space provided.

3. The root word ager means field, and cultivation means the actof tilling. Using this information, define agriculture.

SEQUENCING INFORMATION One reading skill is the ability tosequence information, or to logically place items or events in theorder in which they occur.In the space provided, write the termthat best completes each sentence in the sequence of statementsshowing how the food we eat today has changed over time.

4. Step 1: Farmers collected

from plants they liked. .

5. Step 2: The farmers preferred plants were planted and 6. Step3:

plants became very different from their ancestors.

RECOGNIZING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES One reading skill isthe ability to recognize similarities and differences between twophrases, ideas, or things. This is sometimes known as comparing andcontrasting.In the space provided, write the letter of the phrasethat best completes the statement.

______ 7. Farms are to hunting and gathering as a. cars are toairplanes. c. fish hatcheries are to fishing. b. anchors are toships. d. compact discs are to vinyl records. RECOGNIZING CAUSE ANDEFFECT One reading skill is the ability to recognize cause andeffect.Read each question and write your answer in the spaceprovided.

8. In what two ways did the human population change as a resultof the agricultural revolution?

9. What changes did humans make that affected localenvironments?

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Science and the Environment

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Active ReadingSection: The Environment and SocietyRead thepassage below and answer the questions that follow.

The decisions and actions of all people in the world affect ourenvironment. But the unequal distribution of wealth and resourcesaround the world influences the environmental problems that asociety faces and the choices it can make. The United Nationsgenerally classifies countries as either developed or developing.Developed countries have higher average incomes, slower populationgrowth, diverse industrial economies, and stronger social supportsystems. They include the United States, Canada, Japan, and thecountries of Western Europe. Developing countries have loweraverage incomes, simple and agriculturebased economies, and rapidpopulation growth. In between are middle-income countries, such asMexico, Brazil, and Malaysia. IDENTIFYING MAIN IDEAS One readingskill is the ability to identify the main idea of a passage. Themain idea is the main focus or key idea. Frequently a main idea isaccompanied by supporting information that offers detailed factsabout main ideas.Read each question and write the answer in thespace provided.

1. What organization has classified countries as developing ordeveloped?

2. List two developed countries.

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENTIn the space provided, write the letter ofthe phrase that best completes each statement.

______ 3. Developed countries often a. have higher averageincomes and faster population growth. b. have higher averageincomes and slower population growth. c. have faster populationgrowth and diverse industrial economies. d. eventually becomedeveloping countries. ______ 4. Developing countries often a. havelower average incomes and slower population growth. b. have middleincomes. c. include Mexico and Brazil. d. have lower averageincomes and faster population growth.Copyright by Holt, Rinehartand Winston. All rights reserved.

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Science and the Environment

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Active Reading continuedRECOGNIZING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCESOne reading skill is the ability to recognize similarities anddifferences between two phrases, ideas, or things. This issometimes known as comparing and contrasting.Read each question andwrite your answer in the space provided.

5. The suffix -ed forms the past participle of a verb: workbecomes worked. The suffix -ing is used to form the presentparticiple of a verb: swim becomes swimming. Using thisinformation, define a developed country.

6. Define a developing country.

7. What type of economy does a developed country have?

8. What type of economy does a developing country have?

9. How do the social support systems of developed countriesdiffer from those of developing countries?

RECOGNIZING CAUSE AND EFFECT One reading skill is the ability torecognize cause and effect.Read the question and write your answerin the space provided.

10. What factor affects environmental problems and the number ofchoices a society can make?

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Science and the Environment

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Active ReadingSection: Scientific MethodsRead the passage belowand answer the questions that follow.

Experiments should be designed to pinpoint cause-and-effectrelationships. For this reason, good experiments have two essentialcharacteristics: a single variable is tested, and a control isused. The variable (VER ee uh buhl) is the factor of interest,which, in the example in which Keene High School studentshypothesized that phosphate in the river was killing dwarf wedgemussels, would be the level of phosphate in the water. To test forone variable, scientists usually study two groups or situations ata time. The variable being studied is the only difference betweenthe groups. The group that receives the experimental treatment iscalled the experimental group. In our example, the experimentalgroup would be those mussels that receive phosphate in their water.The group that does not receive the experimental treatment iscalled the control group. In our example, the control group wouldbe those mussels that do not have phosphate added to their water.If the mussels in the control group thrive while most of those inthe experimental group die, the experiments results support thehypothesis that phosphates from fertilizer are killing the mussels.IDENTIFYING MAIN IDEAS One reading skill is the ability to identifythe main idea of a passage. The main idea is the main focus or keyidea. Frequently a main idea is accompanied by supportinginformation that offers detailed facts about the main idea.Readeach question and write the answer in the space provided.

1. What are two essential characteristics of a goodexperiment?

2. How do scientists usually test for one variable?

3. How should experiments be designed?

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Tools of Environmental Science

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Active Reading continuedVOCABULARY DEVELOPMENTRead each questionand write the answer in the space provided.

4. The group that does not receive an experimental treatment iscalled the

.5. The group that receives the experimental treatment is calledthe

. RECOGNIZING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES One reading skill isthe ability to recognize similarities and differences between twophrases, ideas, or things. This is sometimes known as comparing andcontrasting.Read each question and write the answer in the spaceprovided.

6. What do a control group and an experimental group have incommon?

7. In the experiment discussed in the passage, what is thevariable?

RECOGNIZING CAUSE AND EFFECT One reading skill is the ability torecognize cause and effect.In the space provided, write the letterof the term or phrase that best completes the statement.

______ 8. The differences observed between control groups andexperimental groups can help identify relationships. a.cause-and-effect c. conditional b. inverse-and-converse d.unconventionalRead each question and write the answer in the spaceprovided.

9. What is the effect of using both a variable and a control inan experiment?

10. In the example used in this passage, what would the studentsknow if the mussels in the experimental group died?

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Tools of Environmental Science

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Skills Worksheet

Active ReadingSection: Statistics and ModelsRead the passagebelow and answer the questions that follow.

Although statistical populations are composed of similarindividuals, these individuals often have differentcharacteristics. For example, in the population of students in yourclassroom, each student has a different height, weight, and so on.As part of their experiments, the Keene High School studentsmeasured the lengths of dwarf wedge mussels in a population. Byadding the lengths of the mussels and then dividing by the numberof mussels, students calculated the average length of the mussels,which in statistical terms is called the mean. A mean is the numberobtained by adding up the data for a given characteristic anddividing this sum by the number of individuals. For scientists, themean provides a single numerical measure for a given aspect of apopulation. Scientists can easily compare different populations bycomparing their means. IDENTIFYING MAIN IDEAS One reading skill isthe ability to identify the main idea of a passage. The main ideais the main focus or key idea. Frequently, a main idea isaccompanied by supporting information that offers detailed factsabout the main idea.Read each question and write the answer in thespace provided.

1. Can one individual represent an entire population? Why or whynot?

2. How can scientists compare two different populations?

3. How is a mean established?

In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrasethat best answers each question.

______ 4. The mean provides a single numerical measure for one apopulation. a. individual c. dwarf wedge mussel b. average d.characteristicCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rightsreserved.

of

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Active Reading continued______ 5. For which characteristic didKeene High School students establish a mean? a. height c. length b.weight d. taste

______ 6. What did Keene High School students do with thischaracteristic to determine the mean? a. added the data for thecharacteristic and divided the sum by the number of mussels b.added the data for the characteristic and multiplied by the numberof mussels c. added the data for the characteristic and subtractedit from the number of mussels d. added the data for thecharacteristic with the number of mussels SEQUENCING INFORMATIONOne reading skill is the ability to sequence information, or tologically place items or events in the order in which theyoccur.Sequence the statements below to show the steps in theprocess used in determining the average. Write 1 on the line infront of the first step, 2 on the line in front of the second step,and so on.

______ 7. Divide the sums of the data by the number ofindividuals in each population. ______ 8. Compare the means of thetwo populations. ______ 9. Measure and record the characteristicdata of all individuals. ______10. Identify a characteristic commonto different populations. ______11. Add up the characteristic datafrom each population. RECOGNIZING CAUSE AND EFFECT One readingskill is the ability to recognize cause and effect.Read thequestion and write the answer in the space provided.

12. Why does a mean need to be determined for an experiment?

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Tools of Environmental Science

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Skills Worksheet

Active ReadingSection: Making Informed DecisionsRead the passagebelow and answer the questions that follow.

Forming an opinion about an environmental issue is oftendifficult and may even seem overwhelming. It helps to have asystematic way of analyzing the issues and deciding what isimportant. One way to guide yourself through this process is byusing a decisionmaking model. A decision-making model is aconceptual model that provides a systematic process for makingdecisions. In a simple decision-making model, the first step is togather information. In addition to watching news reports andreading newspapers, magazines, and books about environmentalissues, you should listen to well-informed people on all sides ofan issue. Then consider which values apply to the issue. Explorethe consequences of each option. Finally, evaluate all of theinformation and make a decision. IDENTIFYING MAIN IDEAS One readingskill is the ability to identify the main idea of a passage. Themain idea is the main focus or key idea. Frequently, a main idea isaccompanied by supporting information that offers detailed factsabout the main idea.In the space provided, write the letter of theterm or phrase that best answers each question.

______ 1. Which of the following can help you when you want toform an opinion or make a decision? a. having many friends so theycan tell you what they think b. listening to the opinions of allthe adults around you c. finding one source of information that cantell you all you need to know d. having a systematic way ofanalyzing issues ______ 2. Which of the following sources shouldyou use when gathering information to help you make a decisionabout environmental issues? a. the TV news c. books and magazinesb. local newspapers d. all of the above ______ 3. What is a goodsystem of analyzing issues? a. using a cause-and-effect chart b.determining the mean for a population c. using a decision-makingmodel d. performing experimentsCopyright by Holt, Rinehart andWinston. All rights reserved.

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Active Reading continued______ 4. Whose opinions should you seekwhen you are trying to make a decision? a. your relatives andteachers b. your friends c. well-informed peoples on all sides ofthe issue d. well-informed peoples on the side of the issue thatbest matches your values

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENTRead each question and write the answer inthe space provided.

5. The suffix -ate means to act on. If the word values meansprinciples or standards we consider important, what is the meaningof the word evaluate?

6. What is a decision-making model?

SEQUENCING INFORMATION One reading skill is the ability tosequence information, or to logically place items or events in theorder in which they occur.Sequence the statements below to show thesteps of the decision-making model. Write 1 on the line in front ofthe first step, 2 on the line in front of the second step, and soon.

______ 7. Evaluate all the information. ______ 8. Explore theconsequences of each option. ______ 9. Consider which values applyto the issue. ______10. Make a decision. ______11. Gatherinformation from many sources. RECOGNIZING CAUSE AND EFFECTRead thequestion and write the answer in the space provided.

12. What is one effect of using a decision-making model?

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Tools of Environmental Science

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Skills Worksheet

Active ReadingSection: The GeosphereRead the passage below andanswer the questions that follow.

If we consider the physical properties of each layer, instead ofchemistry, the Earth can be divided into five layers. Earths outerlayer is the lithosphere. It is a cool, rigid layer, 15 km to 300km thick, and includes the crust and uppermost part of the mantle.It is divided into huge pieces called tectonic plates. Theasthenosphere is the layer beneath the lithosphere. Theasthenosphere is a plastic, solid layer of the mantle made of rockthat flows very slowly and allows tectonic plates to move on top ofit. Beneath the asthenosphere is the mesosphere, the lower part ofthe mantle. The Earths outer core is a dense liquid layer. At thecenter of the Earth is the dense, solid inner core, which is madeup mostly of the metals iron and nickel. The temperature of theinner core is estimated to be between 4,000C to 5,000C. It is solidbecause it is under enormous pressure. Earths outer and inner coretogether make up about one-third of Earths mass. IDENTIFYING MAINIDEAS One reading skill is the ability to identify the main idea ofa passage. The main idea is the main focus or key idea. Frequently,a main idea is accompanied by supporting information that offersdetailed facts about main ideas.In the space provided, write theletter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement orbest answers each question.

______ 1. Earth can be divided into how many physical layers? a.five c. eight b. three d. six ______ 2. The approximate temperatureof the inner core is a. between 3,000C and 4,000C. c. between4,000C and 5,000C. b. between 4,000F and 5,000F. d. unknown. ______3. The inner core is solid because a. it absorbs heat from the sun.c. it is influenced by global warming. b. it is under tremendouspressure. d. the movement of tectonic plates causes friction.______ 4. One-third of Earths mass is made up of what? a. Earthsouter core c. tectonic plates b. Earths inner core d. both (a) and(b)Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rightsreserved.

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The Dynamic Earth

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Active Reading continuedVOCABULARY DEVELOPMENTIn the spaceprovided, write the letter of the description that best matches theterm or phrase.

______ 5. lithosphere ______ 6. mesosphere ______ 7. tectonicplates ______ 8. inner core ______ 9. asthenosphere ______10. outercore SEQUENCING INFORMATION

a. dense layer made of iron and nickel b. rigid layer thatincludes crust and upper mantle c. plastic, solid layer ofslow-flowing rock d. lower part of mantle e. huge pieces of thelithosphere f. dense liquid layer

One reading skill is the ability to sequence information, or tologically place items or events in the order in which theyoccur.Write the names of the Earths physical layers in sequence,from the outermost layer to the innermost layer.

11. 12. 13.

14. 15.

RECOGNIZING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES One reading skill isthe ability to recognize similarities and differences between twophrases, ideas, or things. This is sometimes known as comparing andcontrasting.Read the following question and write the answer in thespace provided.

16. How are the outer core and the inner core alike? How arethey different?

RECOGNIZING CAUSE AND EFFECT One reading skill is the ability torecognize cause and effect.Read the following question and writethe answer in the space provided.

17. Why do the tectonic plates move?

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The Dynamic Earth

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Active ReadingSection: The AtmosphereRead the passage below andanswer the questions that follow.

Solar energy reaches the Earth as electromagnetic radiation,which includes visible light, infrared radiation, and ultravioletlight. The sun releases a vast amount of radiation, but our planetonly receives about two-billionths of this energy. This seeminglysmall amount of radiation contains a tremendous amount of energy,however. About half of the solar energy that enters the atmospherepasses through the atmosphere and reaches the Earths surface. Therest of the energy is absorbed or reflected in the atmosphere byclouds, gases, and dust, or it is reflected by the Earths surface.On a sunny day, rocks may become too hot to touch. If the Earthssurface continually absorbed energy, the Earth would get hotter andhotter. The Earth does not continue to get warmer, because theoceans and the land radiate the energy they have absorbed back intothe atmosphere. IDENTIFYING MAIN IDEAS One reading skill is theability to identify the main idea of a passage. The main idea isthe main focus or key idea. Frequently, a main idea is accompaniedby supporting information that offers detailed facts about mainideas.In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrasethat best completes each statement or best answers eachquestion.

______ 1. When solar energy reaches Earth, it is in the form ofa. visible light. c. ultraviolet light. b. infrared radiation. d.All of the above ______ 2. How much of the suns radiation doesEarth receive? a. one-millionth c. half b. two-hundredths d.two-billionths ______ 3. Approximately what percentage of solarenergy that passes through the atmosphere reaches Earth? a. 5percent b. 20 percent c. 25 percent d. 50 percentIn the spaceprovided, write the letter of the phrase that best completes thestatement.

______ 4. Visible light, infrared radiation, and ultravioletlight are all forms of a. ions. c. atmospheric gases. b.electromagnetic radiation. d. aerosols.Copyright by Holt, Rinehartand Winston. All rights reserved.

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The Dynamic Earth

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Active Reading continuedRECOGNIZING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCESOne reading skill is the ability to recognize similarities anddifferences between two phrases, ideas, or things. This issometimes known as comparing and contrasting.Read each question andwrite the answer in the space provided.

5. A park bench may become very hot on a sunny day. Why is thebench like the rock mentioned in the passage above?

6. What happens to the solar energy that is not absorbed byEarths surface?

RECOGNIZING CAUSE AND EFFECT One reading skill is the ability torecognize cause and effect.In the space provided, write the letterof the term or phrase that best completes each statement or bestanswers the question.

______ 7. All of the solar energy that enters Earths atmospheredoes not reach Earths surface because it is either absorbed or a.scattered. c. reflected. b. refracted. d. Both (a) and (c)Read thefollowing question and write the answer in the space provided.

8. Explain why Earths surface does not get hotter andhotter.

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The Dynamic Earth

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Active ReadingSection: The Hydrosphere and BiosphereRead thepassage below and answer the questions that follow.

Life exists on Earth because of several important factors. Liferequires liquid water, temperatures between 10C and 40C, and asource of energy. The materials that organisms require mustcontinually be cycled. Gravity allows a planet to maintain anatmosphere and to cycle materials. Suitable combinations of thethings that organisms need to survive are found only in thebiosphere. The biosphere is located near the Earths surface becausemost of the sunlight is available near the surface. Plants on landand in the oceans need sunlight to produce their food, and almostevery other organism gets its food from plants and algae. Most ofthese algae float at the surface of the ocean. These tiny,free-floating, marine algae are known as phytoplankton. Except forbacteria that live at hydrothermal vents, most of the organismsthat live deep in the ocean feed on dead plants and animals thatdrift down from the surface. IDENTIFYING MAIN IDEAS One readingskill is the ability to identify the main idea of a passage. Themain idea is the main focus or key idea. Frequently, a main idea isaccompanied by supporting information that offers detailed factsabout main ideas.In the space provided, write the letter of theterm or phrase that best completes each statement or best answersthe question.

______ 1. Life requires a. temperatures between 10C and 40C,electromagnetic radiation, and hydrothermal vents. b.precipitation, sodium chloride, and phytoplankton. c. liquid water,temperatures between 10C and 40C, and a source of energy. d.gravity, algae, and bacteria. ______ 2. Where on Earth areconditions suitable to most life located? a. in the mesosphere c.hydrothermal vents b. in the biosphere d. both (a) and (c) ______3. Phytoplankton are a. bacteria. b. tiny marine algae.c. plants onland. d. dead plants and animals.

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Holt Environmental Science

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The Dynamic Earth

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Active Reading continuedIn the space provided, write the letterof the description that best matches the term or phrase.

______ 4. Materials that organisms require need ______ 5. Plantsneed ______ 6. The biosphere needs ______ 7. Organisms (other thanplants) need ______ 8. Most organisms that live deep in the oceanneed VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

a. sunlight. b. plants and algae. c. to be near Earths surface.d. to be continually cycled. e. dead plants and animals.

Read each question and write the answer in the spaceprovided.

9. Define biosphere.

SEQUENCING INFORMATION One reading skill is the ability tosequence information, or to logically place items or events in theorder in which they occur.What is needed before the next thing canhappen? Read each question and write the answer in the spaceprovided.

10. Before life can exist, it requires a source of energy,temperatures between

10C and 40C, and

.

11. Before a planet can maintain an atmosphere and cyclematerials, it must have

.12. Before a plant can produce food, it requires

.

13. Before most organisms (other than plants) can survive, theyneed to have

plants and

to eat.

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Holt Environmental Science

16

The Dynamic Earth

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Skills Worksheet

Active ReadingSection: Ecosystems: Everything Is ConnectedReadthe passage below and answer the questions that follow.

An ecosystem is made up of both living and nonliving things.Biotic factors are the living and once-living parts of anecosystem, including all of the plants and animals. Biotic factorsinclude dead organisms, dead parts of organisms, such as leaves,and the organisms waste products. The biotic parts of an ecosysteminteract with each other in various ways. They also interact withthe abiotic (ay bie AHT ik) factors, the nonliving parts of theecosystem. Abiotic factors include air, water, rocks, sand, light,and temperature. IDENTIFYING MAIN IDEAS One reading skill is theability to identify the main idea of a passage. The main idea isthe main focus or key idea. Frequently, a main idea is accompaniedby supporting information that offers detailed facts about mainideas.Read each question and write the answer in the spaceprovided.

1. What is an ecosystem made up of?

2. Biotic parts of an ecosystem interact with

and with . VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENTRead each question and writethe answer in the space provided.

3. Biotic factors are the

and parts of an ecosystem.

4. Abiotic factors are the

parts of an ecosystem.

5. The root word bio means life. If you know that biotic meanshaving life, what can you guess is one of the meanings of theprefix a-?

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Holt Environmental Science

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The Organization of Life

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Active Reading continuedRECOGNIZING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCESOne reading skill is the ability to recognize similarities anddifferences between two phrases, ideas, or things. This issometimes known as comparing and contrasting.In the space provided,write B next to biotic factors and Anext to abiotic factors.

______ 6. animals ______ 7. temperature ______ 8. air ______ 9.dead parts of organisms ______10. organisms waste products______11. water ______12. rocks ______13. plants ______14. sand______15. dead organisms ______16. light SEQUENCING INFORMATION Onereading skill is the ability to sequence information, or tologically place items or events in the order in which theyoccur.Sequence the statements below to show the order in which theinformation was presented in the passage. Write 1 on the line infront of the first information presented, 2 in front of the nextinformation presented, and so on.

______ 17. The definition of biotic factors is given. ______18.Examples of abiotic factors are given. ______19. Examples of bioticfactors are given. ______20. Interactions of biotic and abioticfactors are discussed. ______21. The definition of abiotic factorsis given.

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Holt Environmental Science

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The Organization of Life

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Skills Worksheet

Active ReadingSection: EvolutionRead the passage below andanswer the questions that follow.

Resistance is the ability of one or more organisms to tolerate aparticular chemical designed to kill it. An organism may beresistant to a chemical when it contains a gene that allows it tobreak the chemical down into harmless substances. By trying tocontrol pests and bacteria with chemicals, humans promote theevolution of resistant populations. Consider the evolution ofpesticide resistance among corn pests. A pesticide is sprayed oncorn to kill grasshoppers. Most of the grasshoppers die, but a fewsurvive. The survivors happen to have a version of a gene thatprotects them from the pesticide. The surviving insects pass on thegene to their offspring. Each time the corn is sprayed, insectsthat are resistant to the pesticide will have a greater chance ofsurvival and reproduction. As a result, the insect population willevolve to include more and more resistant members. IDENTIFYING MAINIDEAS One reading skill is the ability to identify the main idea ofa passage. The main idea is the main focus or key idea. Frequently,a main idea is accompanied by supporting information that offersdetailed facts about main ideas.Read each question and write theanswer in the space provided.

1. When might an organism be resistant to a chemical?

2. What main idea do the details in the second paragraphsupport?

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENTRead each question and write the answer inthe space provided.

3. Define resistance.

4. Write a sentence using the word resistance.

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Holt Environmental Science

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The Organization of Life

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Active Reading continuedSEQUENCING INFORMATION One reading skillis the ability to sequence information, or to logically place itemsor events in the order in which they occur.Sequence the statementsbelow to show the steps in insects development of resistance topesticides. Write 1 on the line in front of the first step, 2 onthe line in front of the second step, and so on.

______ 5. Remaining grasshoppers reproduce, passing on theresistant gene. ______ 6. Corn is sprayed with a pesticide. ______7. Some grasshoppers survive. ______ 8. The pesticide is rendereduseless after many sprayings. ______ 9. The survivors offspring aresprayed again. ______10. A cycle continues of the mostpesticide-resistant members of the population surviving eachspraying and reproducing.RECOGNIZING CAUSE AND EFFECT

One reading skill is the ability to recognize cause andeffect.Read each question and write the answer in the spaceprovided.

11. What makes an organism resistant to a chemical?

12. What human activity promotes the evolution of organisms thatare resistant to certain chemicals?

13. When a pesticide is sprayed and there are still survivors,what can you assume about them?

14. If an organism reproduces quickly, its population can

faster.

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Holt Environmental Science

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The Organization of Life

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Skills Worksheet

Active ReadingSection: The Diversity of Living ThingsRead thepassage below and answer the questions that follow.

A fungus (plural, fungi) is an organism whose cells have nuclei,cell walls, and no chlorophyll (the pigment that makes plantsgreen). Cell walls act like miniature skeletons that allow fungi,such as mushrooms, to stand upright. A mushroom is the reproductivestructure of a fungus. The rest of the fungus is an undergroundnetwork of fibers. These fibers absorb food from decaying organismsin the soil. Indeed, all fungi absorb their food from theirsurroundings. Fungi get their food by releasing chemicals that helpbreak down organic matter, and then by absorbing the nutrients. Thebodies of most fungi are huge networks of threads that grow throughthe soil, dead wood, or other material on which the fungi arefeeding. Like bacteria, fungi play an important role in theenvironment by breaking down the bodies and body parts of deadorganisms. Like bacteria, some fungi cause diseases, such asathletes foot. Other fungi add flavor to food. The fungus in bluecheese gives the cheese its strong flavor. And fungi called yeastsproduce the gas that makes bread rise. IDENTIFYING MAIN IDEAS Onereading skill is the ability to identify the main idea of apassage. The main idea is the main focus or key idea. Frequently, amain idea is accompanied by supporting information that offersdetailed facts about main ideas.In the space provided, write theletter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement orbest answers each question.

______ 1. A fungus does not have a. cells. b. chlorophyll.

c. fibers. d. diseases.

______ 2. What allows a fungus to stand upright? a. cell wallsc. nuclei b. a skeleton d. soil ______ 3. The reproductivestructure of a fungus is (a) a. network of fibers. c. mushroom. b.fungi. d. chlorophyll. ______ 4. A fungus gets food from a.chlorophyll. b. its surroundings.c. yeast. d. None of the above

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Holt Environmental Science

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The Organization of Life

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Active Reading continued______ 5. Most of a funguss body is itsa. mushroom. b. miniature skeleton. ______ 6. A funguss cells havea. nuclei and cell walls. b. cell walls and chlorophyll.

c. exoskeleton. d. underground network of fibers. c. nuclei andchlorophyll. d. None of the above

RECOGNIZING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES One reading skill isthe ability to recognize similarities and differences between twophrases, ideas, or things. This is sometimes known as comparing andcontrasting.Read the question and write the answer in the spaceprovided.

7. To what does the author compare the cell walls of afungus?

8. Name two ways in which fungi are similar to bacteria.

RECOGNIZING CAUSE AND EFFECT One reading skill is the ability torecognize cause and effect.Read each question and write the answerin the space provided.

9. What important role do fungi play in the environment?

10. Name one undesirable disease that fungi are responsiblefor?

11. What beneficial effect do fungi have on blue cheese?

12. What effect do yeasts have on bread?

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Holt Environmental Science

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The Organization of Life

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Skills Worksheet

Active ReadingSection: Energy Flow in EcosystemsRead the passagebelow and answer the questions that follow.

Energy from the sun enters an ecosystem when a plant usessunlight to make sugar molecules by a process calledphotosynthesis. During photosynthesis, plants, algae, and somebacteria capture solar energy. Solar energy drives a series ofchemical reactions that require carbon dioxide and water. Theresult of photosynthesis is the production of sugar molecules knownas carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are energy-rich molecules whichorganisms use to carry out daily activities. As organisms consumefood and use energy from carbohydrates, the energy travels from oneorganism to another. Plants produce carbohydrates in their leaves.When an animal eats a plant, some energy is transferred from theplant to the animal. Organisms use this energy to move, grow, andreproduce. IDENTIFYING MAIN IDEAS One reading skill is the abilityto identify the main idea of a passage. The main idea is the mainfocus or key idea. Frequently a main idea is accompanied bysupporting information that offers detailed facts about mainideas.In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrasethat best completes each statement or best answers eachquestion.

______ 1. Plants, algae, and some bacteria capture duringphotosynthesis. c. carbon dioxide a. solar energy b. carbohydratesd. organisms ______ 2. The chemical reactions driven by solarenergy require a. carbon dioxide and water. c. organisms and water.b. plants and algae. d. carbon dioxide and sugar molecules. ______3. During photosynthesis, plants make a. carbohydrates. c. water.b. carbon dioxide. d. None of the above ______ 4. Where does theproduction of carbohydrates in a plant take place? a. in thecarbohydrates c. in the ecosystem b. in the leaves d. in thestems

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Holt Environmental Science

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How Ecosystems Work

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Active Reading continuedVOCABULARY DEVELOPMENTRead each questionand write the answer in the space provided.

5. Energy-rich molecules that organisms use to carry out dailyactivities are

.6. The process by which a plant uses sunlight to make sugarmolecules is called

. SEQUENCING INFORMATION One reading skill is the ability tosequence information, or to logically place items or events in theorder in which they occur.Sequence the statements below to show thesteps in the process of energy production and consumption. Write 1on the line in front of the first step, 2 on the line in front ofthe second step, and so on.

______ 7. Photosynthesis produces carbohydrates. ______ 8.Plants, algae, and some bacteria capture solar energy. ______ 9.Energy is transferred from one organism to another. ______10. Solarenergy drives a series of chemical reactions. ______11. Otherorganisms consume carbohydrates found in plants, algae, and somebacteria. RECOGNIZING CAUSE AND EFFECT One reading skill is theability to recognize cause and effect.In the space provided, writethe letter of the effect that best matches the cause.

______12. Organisms consume food and use energy fromcarbohydrates. ______13. A plant uses sunlight for photosynthesis.______14. An animal eats a plant.

a. Carbohydrates are produced. b. Energy travels from oneorganism to another. c. Energy from the plant is transferred andused to move, grow, and reproduce.

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Holt Environmental Science

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How Ecosystems Work

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Skills Worksheet

Active ReadingSection: The Cycling of MaterialsRead the passagebelow and answer the questions that follow.

When we burn fossil fuels, we release carbon into theatmosphere. The carbon returns to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.Cars, factories, and power plants rely on these fossil fuels tooperate. In the year 2000, vehicles were the source of one-third ofall carbon dioxide emitted in the United States. Each year, about 6billion metric tons of carbon are released into the atmosphere ascarbon dioxide by the burning of fossil fuels and the naturalburning of wood in forest fires. About half of this carbon dioxideremains in the atmosphere. As a result, the amount of carbondioxide in the atmosphere has steadily increased. Increased levelsof carbon dioxide may contribute to global warming, which is anoverall increase in the temperature of the Earth. What happens tothe carbon dioxide that does not remain in the atmosphere?Scientists estimate that, each year, over a billion metric tons ofcarbon dioxide dissolves into the ocean, which is a carbon sink.Plants probably absorb the remaining carbon dioxide. IDENTIFYINGMAIN IDEAS One reading skill is the ability to identify the mainidea of a passage. The main idea is the main focus or key idea.Frequently a main idea is accompanied by supporting informationthat offers detailed facts about main ideas.Read each question andwrite the answer in the space provided.

1. What do most cars, factories, and power plants rely on tooperate?

2. In what form does carbon return to the atmosphere after it isreleased from the burning of fossil fuels?

3. One-third of the United States carbon consumption is used tooperate what?

4. How many tons of carbon are released into Earths atmosphereevery year?

5. Why does the author mention the United States in the fourthsentence?

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Holt Environmental Science

25

How Ecosystems Work

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Active Reading continuedVOCABULARY DEVELOPMENTIn the spaceprovided, write the letter of the term or phrase that bestcompletes each statement or best answers each question.

______ 6. Global warming a. is carbon dioxide that dissolvesinto the ocean. b. is an overall increase in the temperature ofEarth. c. is caused by natural burning of wood and forest fires. d.makes up half of Earths atmosphere. ______ 7. Which of thefollowing statements is true about fossil fuels, carbon, and carbondioxide? a. Carbon dioxide returns to the atmosphere as carbon whenfossil fuels are burned. b. Fossil fuels return to the atmosphereas carbon dioxide when carbon is burned. c. Carbon returns to theatmosphere as carbon dioxide when fossil fuels are burned. d. noneof the above RECOGNIZING CAUSE AND EFFECT One reading skill is theability to recognize cause and effect.Read each question and writethe answer in the space provided.

8. What three things cause carbon to be released into theatmosphere as carbon dioxide?

9. What is one effect of increased levels of carbon dioxide inthe atmosphere?

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Holt Environmental Science

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How Ecosystems Work

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Skills Worksheet

Active ReadingSection: How Ecosystems ChangeRead the passagebelow and answer the questions that follow.

Another example of secondary succession is old-field succession,which occurs when farmland is abandoned. When a farmer stopscultivating a field, grasses and weeds quickly grow and cover theabandoned land. The pioneer grasses and weeds grow rapidly andproduce many seeds to cover large areas. Over time, taller plantssuch as grasses grow in the area. These plants shade the ground,keeping light from the shorter plants. The long roots of the tallerplants also absorb most of the water in the soil. The pioneerplants soon die from lack of sunlight and water. As successioncontinues, the taller plants are deprived of light and water bygrowing trees. Finally, slower-growing trees such as oaks,hickories, beeches, and maples take over the area and blocksunlight to the smaller trees. The area can eventually establish aclimax community dominated by a mature oak forest. IDENTIFYING MAINIDEAS One reading skill is the ability to identify the main idea ofa passage. The main idea is the main focus or key idea. Frequentlya main idea is accompanied by supporting information that offersdetailed facts about main ideas.Read each question and write theanswer in the space provided.

1. What type of succession is old-field succession?

2. Summarize what happens to a field when a farmer stopscultivating it.

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENTRead each question and write the answer inthe space provided.

3. What key terms are used in this passage?

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Holt Environmental Science

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How Ecosystems Work

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Active Reading continued4. Define the terms you identified inthe previous question.

SEQUENCING INFORMATION One reading skill is the ability tosequence information, or to logically place items or events in theorder in which they occur.Sequence the statements below to show thesteps in old-field succession. Write 1 on the line in front of thefirst step, 2 on the line in front of the second step, and soon.

______ 5. Taller plants grow in the area and shade the ground.______ 6. A climax community exists. ______ 7. Pioneer grasses andweeds grow and produce many seeds. ______ 8. A farmer stopscultivating a field. ______ 9. Trees grow and shade the tallerplants. ______ 10. The taller plants die. ______11. The pioneerplants die. ______12. Slower-growing trees shade the smaller trees.RECOGNIZING CAUSE AND EFFECT One reading skill is the ability torecognize cause and effect.Read each question and write the answerin the space provided.

13. What causes pioneer grasses and weeds that have grown in anabandoned field to die?

14. What happens after a farmer abandons a field and the stagesof old-field succession take place?

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Holt Environmental Science

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How Ecosystems Work

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Skills Worksheet

Active ReadingSection: What Is a Biome?Read the passage belowand answer the questions that follow.

Biomes, climate, and vegetation vary with latitude and altitude.Latitude is the distance north or south of the equator and ismeasured in degrees. Altitude is the height of an object above sealevel. Climate varies with latitude and altitude. For example,climate gets colder as latitude and altitude increase. So, climatealso gets colder as you move farther up a mountain. As latitude andaltitude increase, biomes and vegetation change. For example, thetrees of tropical rain forests usually grow closer to the equator,while the mosses and lichens of the tundra usually grow closer tothe poles. The land located in the temperate region of the world,between about 30 and 60 north latitude and 30 and 60 southlatitude, is where most of the food in the world is grown. Thisregion includes biomes such as temperate forests and grasslands,which usually have moderate temperatures and fertile soil that areideal for agriculture. IDENTIFYING MAIN IDEAS One reading skill isthe ability to identify the main idea of a passage. The main ideais the main focus or key idea. Frequently, a main idea isaccompanied by supporting information that offers detailed factsabout main ideas.Read each question and write the answer in thespace provided.

1. Authors often use examples to help explain the main idea.What examples does this author use to explain how climatevaries?

2. What example does the author use to explain how biomes andvegetation change with climate?

3. What clue does the author provide to make you aware that heor she is providing an example?

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Holt Environmental Science

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Biomes

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Active Reading continued4. Where is the temperate region of theworld located?

5. Name two biomes that are located in the temperate region.

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENTRead each question and write the answer inthe space provided.

6. The distance north or south of the equator is called 7. Theheight of an object above sea level is called

. .

RECOGNIZING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES One reading skill isthe ability to recognize similarities and differences between twophrases, ideas, or things. This is sometimes known as comparing andcontrasting.Read each question and write the answer in the spaceprovided.

8. Compare vegetation near the poles and vegetation near theequator.

9. How are latitude and altitude similar? How are theydifferent?

RECOGNIZING CAUSE AND EFFECT One reading skill is the ability torecognize cause and effect.Read each question and write the answerin the space provided.

10. What causes climate to vary?

11. What causes biomes and vegetation to change?

12. Why is the temperate region of the world a good place togrow food?

13. What happens as you move farther up a mountain?

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Holt Environmental Science

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Biomes

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Skills Worksheet

Active ReadingSection: Forest BiomesRead the passage below andanswer the questions that follow.

Tropical rain forests once covered about 20 percent of Earthssurface. Today, they cover only about 7 percent. Every minute ofevery day, 100 acres of tropical rain forest are cleared forlogging operations, agriculture, or oil exploration. Habitatdestruction occurs when land inhabited by an organism is destroyedor altered. If the habitat that an organism depends on isdestroyed, the organism is at risk of disappearing. Animals andplants are not the only organisms that live in rain forests. Anestimated 50 million native peoples live in tropical rain forests.These native peoples are also threatened by habitat destruction.Because they obtain nearly everything they need from the forest,the loss of their habitat could be devastating. This loss ofhabitat may force them to leave their homes and move into cities.This drastic change of lifestyle may also cause the native peoplesto lose their culture and traditions along the way. IDENTIFYINGMAIN IDEAS One reading skill is the ability to identify the mainidea of a passage. The main idea is the main focus or key idea.Frequently a main idea is accompanied by supporting informationthat offers detailed facts about main ideas.Read each question andwrite the answer in the space provided.

1. How much tropical rain forest is cleared every minute?

2. List three organisms that live in the rain forest.

3. How many native peoples are estimated to be living in rainforests?

4. Where might native peoples go when they are threatened byhabitat destruction?

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENTRead each question and write the answer inthe space provided.

5. When land inhabited by an organism is destroyed oraltered,

occurs.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rightsreserved.

Holt Environmental Science

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Biomes

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Active Reading continued6. If something is habitable, it issuitable for living in. Using this information, how would youdefine habitat?

SEQUENCING INFORMATION One reading skill is the ability tosequence information, or to logically place items or events in theorder in which they occur.Sequence the statements below to show thesteps in the process of habitat destruction. Write 1 on the line infront of the first step, 2on the line in front of the second step,and so on.

______ 7. The native peoples begin to lose some of their cultureand traditions. ______ 8. Several acres of a tropical rain forestare cleared for a logging operation. ______ 9. The organisms thatnative peoples depend on begin to disappear. ______10. Nativepeoples are forced to leave their homes and move into the cities.RECOGNIZING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES One reading skill is theability to recognize similarities and differences between twophrases, ideas, or things. This is sometimes known as comparing andcontrasting.Read each question and write the answer in the spaceprovided.

11. What percentage of Earths surface was once covered bytropical rain forests? What percentage is covered by tropical rainforests today?

12. How are animals, plants, and humans similarly affected whena tropical rain forest is cleared?

RECOGNIZING CAUSE AND EFFECT One reading skill is the ability torecognize cause and effect.Read each question and write the answerin the space provided.

13. Why are tropical rain forests cleared?

14. What might be the cause of an organisms disappearance?

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Holt Environmental Science

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Biomes

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Skills Worksheet

Active ReadingSection: Grassland, Desert, and Tundra BiomesReadthe passage below and answer the questions that follow.

All desert plants have adaptations for obtaining and conservingwater, which allow the plants to live in dry, desert conditions.Plants called succulents, such as cactuses, have thick, fleshystems and leaves that store water. Their leaves also have a waxycoating that prevents water loss. Sharp spines on cactuses keepthirsty animals from devouring the plants juicy flesh. Rainfallrarely penetrates deeply into the soil, so many plants roots spreadout just under the surface of the soil to absorb as much rain aspossible. Many desert shrubs drop their leaves during dry periodsand grow new leaves when it rains again. When conditions are toodry, some plants die and drop seeds that stay dormant in the soiluntil the next rainfall. Then, new plants quickly germinate, grow,and bloom before the soil becomes dry again. Some desert plantshave adapted so that they can survive even if their water contentdrops to as low as 30 percent of their mass. Water levels below 50to 75 percent are fatal for most plants. IDENTIFYING MAIN IDEAS Onereading skill is the ability to identify the main idea of apassage. The main idea is the main focus or key idea. Frequently, amain idea is accompanied by supporting information that offersdetailed facts about main ideas.In the space provided, write theletter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement orbest answers each question.

______ 1. A waxy coating on a desert plants leaves prevent itfrom a. germinating too quickly. c. losing water. b. being eaten bythirsty animals. d. Both (b) and (c) ______ 2. What types ofadaptations help all desert plants survive? a. adaptations thathelp the plants obtain and conserve water b. adaptations that helpthe plants fend off snakes c. adaptations that allow the plants toproduce more carbohydrates d. adaptations that allow the plants toquickly germinate ______ 3. An example of a succulent is a a. seed.b. cactus.c. desert plant. d. spine.

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Holt Environmental Science

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Biomes

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Active Reading continuedRECOGNIZING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCESOne reading skill is the ability to recognize similarities anddifferences between two phrases, ideas, or things. This issometimes known as comparing and contrasting.Read each question andwrite the answer in the space provided.

4. When most plants lose water, what percentage of water contentis low enough to be fatal?

5. When a desert plant loses water, what percentage of watercontent is low enough to be fatal?

RECOGNIZING CAUSE AND EFFECT One reading skill is the ability torecognize cause and effect.Read each question and write the answerin the space provided.

6. Explain how and why a desert plants roots grow as theydo.

7. What adaptations in a desert plant prevent water loss?

8. What adaptation helps desert plants keep animals away?

9. How can a desert plants death cause more plants to grow?

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Holt Environmental Science

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Biomes

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Skills Worksheet

Active ReadingSection: Freshwater EcosystemsRead the passagebelow and answer the questions that follow.

Aquatic ecosystems contain several types of organisms that aregrouped by their location and by their adaptations. Three groups ofaquatic organisms include plankton, nekton, and benthos. Planktonare the organisms that float near the surface of the water. Twotypes of plankton are microscopic plants called phytoplankton, andmicroscopic animals called zooplankton. Phytoplankton produce mostof the food for an aquatic ecosystem. Nekton are free-swimmingorganisms, such as fish, turtles, and whales. Benthos arebottom-dwelling organisms, such as mussels, worms, and barnacles.Many benthic organisms live attached to hard surfaces. Decomposers,organisms that break down dead organisms, are also a type ofaquatic organism. IDENTIFYING MAIN IDEAS One reading skill is theability to identify the main idea of a passage. The main idea isthe main focus or key idea. Frequently, a main idea is accompaniedby supporting information that offers detailed facts about mainideas.In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrasethat best completes each statement or best answers eachquestion.

______ 1. How are organisms in an aquatic ecosystem grouped? a.by size and shape b. by the food they eat c. by how they reproduced. by location and adaptations ______ 2. Where do many benthicorganisms live? a. attached to hard surfaces b. in open water c.near the surface of the water d. attached to benthos ______ 3. Howmany groups of aquatic organisms are discussed in this passage? a.2 c. 5 b. 3 d. 4 ______ 4. Which groups of aquatic organisms arediscussed? a. phytoplankton and zooplankton b. plankton, nekton,and benthos c. plankton, nekton, benthos, and decomposers d.plankton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, nekton, and benthos

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Holt Environmental Science

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Aquatic Ecosystems

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Date

Active Reading continued______ 5. Most of the food for anaquatic ecosystem is produced by a. worms. b. phytoplankton. c.zooplankton. d. fish. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENTIn the space provided,write the letter of the term that best matches the description.

______ 6. aquatic organisms that float near the surface of thewater ______ 7. aquatic organisms that break down dead organisms______ 8. microscopic plants ______ 9. microscopic animals

a. phytoplankton b. plankton c. nekton d. benthos e.decomposers

______10. aquatic organisms that dwell at the bottom of thewater ______11. aquatic organisms that are free-swimming

f. zooplankton

Write P on the line in front of each example of plankton, N onthe line in front of each example of nekton, and B on the line infront of each example of benthos.

______12. turtles ______13. worms ______14. zooplankton______15. fish

______16. mussels ______ 17. barnacles ______18. phytoplankton______19. whales

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rightsreserved.

Holt Environmental Science

36

Aquatic Ecosystems

Name

Class

Date

Skills Worksheet

Active ReadingSection: Marine EcosystemsRead the passage belowand answer the questions that follow.

Estuaries support many marine organisms because estuariesreceive plenty of light for photosynthesis and plenty of nutrientsfor plants and animals. Rivers supply nutrients that have beenwashed from the land, and because the water is shallow, sunlightcan reach all the way to the bottom of the estuary. The light andnutrients support large populations of rooted plants as well asplankton. The plankton in turn provides food for larger animals,such as fish. Dolphins, manatees, seals, and other mammals oftenfeed on fish and plants in estuaries. Oysters, barnacles, and clamslive anchored to marsh grass or rocks and feed by filteringplankton out of the water. Organisms that live in estuaries areable to tolerate variations in salinity because the salt content ofthe water varies as fresh water and salt water mix when tides go inand out. Estuaries provide protected harbors, access to the ocean,and connection to a river. As a result, many of the worlds majorports are built on estuaries. Of the 10 largest urban areas in theworld, 6 were built on estuaries. These 6 cities are Tokyo, NewYork, Shanghai, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, and Bombay.IDENTIFYING MAIN IDEAS One reading skill is the ability to identifythe main idea of a passage. The main idea is the main focus or keyidea. Frequently, a main idea is accompanied by supportinginformation that offers detailed facts about main ideas.Read eachquestion and write the answer in the space provided.

1. What types of organisms do estuaries support?

2. How do oysters, barnacles, and clams feed?

3. What do dolphins, seals, and other mammals eat?

4. What two ingredients make estuaries suitable for plants andanimals?

5. How many of the worlds 10 largest urban areas are built onestuaries? List them.

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rightsreserved.

Holt Environmental Science

37

Aquatic Ecosystems

Name

Class

Date

Active Reading continuedVOCABULARY DEVELOPMENTRead each questionand write the answer in the space provided.

6. Write a title for the first paragraph of the readingselection.

7. Write a title for the second paragraph of the readingselection.

RECOGNIZING CAUSE AND EFFECT One reading skill is the ability torecognize cause and effect.Read each question and write the answerin the space provided.

8. Because water in an estuary is shallow,

.9. Because rivers carry water from places inland to anestuary,

.10. Because estuaries receive plenty of light andnutrients,

.11. Because the light and nutrients support plankton,

.12. Because estuaries provide a connection to rivers, oceanaccess, and protected harbors,

.13. Because the salt content of the water in an estuary variesas fresh and salt water mix with the changing tides,

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rightsreserved.

Holt Environmental Science

38

Aquatic Ecosystems

Name

Class

Date

Skills Worksheet

Active ReadingSection: How Populations Change in SizeRead thepassage below and answer the questions that follow.

Over time, the growth rates of populations change because birthrates and death rates increase or decrease. Growth rates can bepositive, negative, or zero. For a populations growth rate to bezero, the average number of births must equal the average number ofdeaths. A population would remain the same size if each pair ofadults produced exactly two offspring, and each of those offspringsurvived to reproduce. If the adults in a population are notreplaced by new births, the growth rate will be negative and thepopulation will shrink. IDENTIFYING MAIN IDEAS One reading skill isthe ability to identify the main idea of a passage. The main ideais the main focus or key idea. Frequently, a main idea isaccompanied by supporting information that offers detailed factsabout main ideas.In the space provided, write the letter of theterm or phrase that best matches the description.

______ 1. The average number of deaths is greater than theaverage number of births. ______ 2. The average number of deathsequals the average number of births. ______ 3. The average numberof births is greater than the average number of deaths.4. Growthrate is the birth rate minus the

a. positive growth rate b. negative growth rate c. zero growthrate

.5. Suppose that every year, one half of the population has twooffspring per person, and the other half has none. If all membersof the population die after a year, what is the resulting growthrate? Explain your answer.

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rightsreserved.

Holt Environmental Science

39

Understanding Populations

Name

Class

Date

Active Reading continuedSEQUENCING INFORMATION One reading skillis the ability to sequence information, or to logically place itemsor events in the order in which they occur.Sequence the statementsbelow to illustrate zero population growth. Write 1 on the line infront of the first step, 2 on the line in front of the second step,and so on.

______ 6. The population size returns to what it was in year x.______ 7. Two adults produce two offspring in year x. ______ 8. Theoffspring, as adults, reproduce one offspring each. ______ 9. Theparents die. RECOGNIZING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES One readingskill is the ability to recognize similarities and differencesbetween two phrases, ideas, or things. This is sometimes known ascomparing and contrasting.Read each question and write the answerin the space provided.

10. Explain the difference between negative growth rate and zerogrowth rate.

11. What is similar about negative growth rate and zero growthrate?

RECOGNIZING CAUSE AND EFFECT One reading skill is the ability torecognize cause and effect.Read the question and write the answerin the space provided.

12. What would be the result if a population did not replace itsdeaths with new births?

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rightsreserved.

Holt Environmental Science

40

Understanding Populations

Name

Class

Date

Skills Worksheet

Active ReadingSection: How Species Interact with Each OtherReadthe passage below and answer the questions that follow.

An organism that lives in or on another organism and feeds onthe other organism is a parasite. The organism the parasite takesits nourishment from is known as the host. The relationship betweenthe parasite and its host is called parasitism. Examples ofparasites are ticks, fleas, tapeworms, heartworms, bloodsuckingleeches, and mistletoe. Photos of parasites may make you feeluneasy, because parasites are somewhat like predators. Thedifferences between a parasite and a predator are that a parasitespends some of its life in or on the host, and that a parasite doesnot usually kill its host. In fact, the parasite has anevolutionary advantage if it allows its host to live longer.However, the host is often weakened by or exposed to disease fromthe parasite. IDENTIFYING MAIN IDEAS One reading skill is theability to identify the main idea of a passage. The main idea isthe main focus or key idea. Frequently, a main idea is accompaniedby supporting information that offers detailed facts about mainideas.Read each question and write the answer in the spaceprovided.

1. Give four examples of parasites.

2. What does a parasite get from its host?

3. What is the relationship between a parasite and its hostcalled?

In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrasethat best completes each statement or best answers eachquestion.

______ 4. A parasite a. takes nourishment from another organism.b. always eventually kills its host. c. cannot live in mistletoe.d. All of the aboveHolt Environmental Science

______ 5. A host a. is like a predator. b. is the organism aparasite lives on or in. c. may make you feel uneasy. d. usuallykills its parasite.Understanding Populations

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rightsreserved.

41

Name

Class

Date

Active Reading continuedVOCABULARY DEVELOPMENTRead each questionand write the answer in the space provided.6. The prefix para-means alongside, while the Greek word sitos means

grain or food. Use this information to define parasite.

7. If the suffix -ism means the practice of, how would youdefine parasitism?

RECOGNIZING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES One reading skill isthe ability to recognize similarities and differences between twophrases, ideas, or things. This is sometimes known as comparing andcontrasting.Read each question and write the answer in the spaceprovided.8. How are parasites and predators alike?

9. How are parasites and predators different?

RECOGNIZING CAUSE AND EFFECT One reading skill is the ability torecognize cause and effect.Read each question and write the answerin the space provided.

10. Why is it beneficial for a parasite to allow its host tolive?

11. What effect does a parasites presence usually have on itshost?

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rightsreserved.

Holt Environmental Science

42

Understanding Populations

Name

Class

Date

Skills Worksheet

Active ReadingSection: Studying Human PopulationsRead thepassage below and answer the questions that follow.

The average number of years a person is likely to live is thatpersons life expectancy. Life expectancy is most affected by infantmortality, the death rate of infants less than a year old. In 1900,worldwide life expectancy was about 40 years and the infantmortality rate was very high. By 2000, the rate of infant mortalitywas less than one-third of the rate in 1900. Average lifeexpectancy has increased to more than 67 years worldwide. Forpeople in many developed countries, life expectancy is almost 80years. Expensive medical care is not needed to prevent infantdeaths. The infant mortality rate differs greatly among countriesthat have the same average income. Instead, infant health is moreaffected by the parents access to education, food, fuel, and cleanwater. Even in poor areas, many people now know that babies simplyneed to be fed well and kept clean and warm. If these basic needsare met, most children will have a good chance of surviving.IDENTIFYING MAIN IDEAS One reading skill is the ability to identifythe main idea of a passage. The main idea is the main focus or keyidea. Frequently, a main idea is accompanied by supportinginformation that offers detailed facts about main ideas.Read eachquestion and write the answer in the space provided.

______ 1. What was the worldwide average life expectancy in2000? a. about 40 c. almost 80 b. more than 67 d. none of the above______ 2. What was the worldwide life expectancy in 1900? a. about40 c. almost 80 b. more than 67 d. It was not measured in 1900.______ 3. What is the life expectancy for people in many developedcountries today? a. almost 70 years c. almost 95 years b. almost 80years d. almost 40 years ______ 4. What do most infants need inorder to survive? a. to have expensive medical care b. to live in adeveloped country c. to have access to education d. to be fed welland kept clean and warm

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rightsreserved.

Holt Environmental Science

43

The Human Population

Name

Class

Date

Active Reading continuedVOCABULARY DEVELOPMENTRead each questionand write the answer in the space provided.

5. Unscramble the term below. What is the terms definition?

FILE CATPYXNECE

6. Do most people want to have a low infant mortality rate or ahigh infant mortality rate? Explain your answer.

RECOGNIZING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES One reading skill isthe ability to recognize similarities and differences between twophrases, ideas, or things. This is sometimes known as comparing andcontrasting.Read the question and write the answer in the spaceprovided.

7. How did worldwide infant mortality and life expectancy changebetween 1900 and 2000?

RECOGNIZING CAUSE AND EFFECT One reading skill is the ability torecognize cause and effect.In the space provided, write the letterof the term or phrase that best completes each statement or bestanswers each question.

______ 8. Which factor would be most likely to cause a low lifeexpectancy for a country? a. high-tech medical care b. high averageincomes c. low infant mortality rates d. diminished food supply______ 9. Which factors might have the greatest effect on infantmortality in a country? a. low life expectancy and womens fertilityrates b. the countrys average income and parents access to goodmedical care c. burning of fossil fuels and population booms d.parents access to education, food, fuel, and clean water

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rightsreserved.

Holt Environmental Science

44

The Human Population

Name

Class

Date

Skills Worksheet

Active ReadingSection: Changing Population TrendsRead thepassage below and answer the questions that follow.

In many of the poorest countries, wood is the main fuel source.When populations are stable, people use fallen tree limbs for fuel,which does not harm the trees. When populations grow rapidly,deadwood does not accumulate fast enough to provide enough fuel.People begin to cut down living trees, which reduces the amount ofwood available in each new year. Parts of Africa, Asia, and Indiahave been cleared of vegetation by people collecting fuelwood. Asupply of fuel ensures that a person can boil water and cook food.In many parts of the world, water taken directly from wells orpublic supplies is not safe to drink because it may carrywaterborne parasites or other diseases. The water can be sterilizedby boiling it, but fuel is needed to do so. Also, food is oftenunsafe or harder to digest unless it is cooked. Without enoughfuelwood, many people suffer from disease and malnutrition.IDENTIFYING MAIN IDEAS One reading skill is the ability to identifythe main ideas of a passage. The main idea is the main focus or keyidea. Frequently, a main idea is accompanied by supportinginformation that offers detailed facts about main ideas.Read eachquestion and write the answer in the space provided.

1. The main source of fuel for many poorer countries is

.2. People use fallen tree limbs for fuel when their populationis

.3. If a population grows quickly, people begin to cut down

for fuelwood.4. Public water supplies are unsafe in some partsof the world because the water

may carry

and

.

5. Explain how an area of land can become cleared of vegetationbecause a population grows.

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rightsreserved.

Holt Environmental Science

45

The Human Population

Name

Class

Date

Active Reading continuedVOCABULARY DEVELOPMENTRead the followingquestion and write the answer in the space provided.

6. Define deadwood in the context of these two sentences: Whenpopulations are stable, people use fallen tree limbs for fuel,which does not harm the trees. When populations grow rapidly,deadwood does not accumulate fast enough to provide fuel.

SEQUENCING INFORMATION One reading skill is the ability tosequence information, or to logically place items or events in theorder in which they occur.Sequence the statements below to show thesteps to a shortage of fuelwood. Write 1 on the line in front ofthe first step, 2 on the line in front of the second step, and soon.

______ 7. The growing population begins to cut down living treesfor fuel. ______ 8. The area in which the population lives maybecome cleared of vegetation. ______ 9. The amount of availablewood decreases. ______10. A stable population that was usingdeadwood starts to grow rapidly. ______11. The deadwood does notaccumulate fast enough to provide the population with enough fuel.RECOGNIZING CAUSE AND EFFECT One reading skill is the ability torecognize cause and effect.Read each question and write the answerin the space provided.

12. What purpose does fuelwood serve?

13. What is the result of an inadequate supply of fuelwood?

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rightsreserved.

Holt Environmental Science

46

The Human Population

Name

Class

Date

Skills Worksheet

Active ReadingSection: What Is Biodiversity?Read the passagebelow and answer the questions that follow.

Humans benefit from biodiversity every time they eat. Most ofthe crops produced around the world originated from a few areas ofhigh biodiversity. Most new crop varieties are hybrids, cropsdeveloped by combining genetic material from other populations.History has shown that depending on too few plants for food isrisky. For example, famines have resulted when an important cropwas wiped out by disease. But some crops have been saved fromdiseases by being crossbred with wild plant relatives. In thefuture, new crop varieties may come from species not yetdiscovered. IDENTIFYING MAIN IDEAS One reading skill is the abilityto identify the main idea of a passage. The main idea is the mainfocus or key idea. Frequently, a main idea is accompanied bysupporting information that offers detailed facts about mainideas.In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrasethat best completes each statement.

______ 1. Depending on a few plants for food is a. healthy forhumans. b. risky for humans. c. good for crops. d. beneficial forsome species. ______ 2. Relying on one important crop can cause a.famine if the crop is wiped out. b. hybrids if the crop mixes withanother population. c. disease if the crop came from wild plants.d. a new crop variety if a new species is introduced. ______ 3.Some types of crops can be saved from disease if a. they can begenetically isolated. b. they are sprayed with enough pesticide. c.areas of high biodiversity are destroyed. d. they are crossbredwith their wild plant relatives.Read the question and write theanswer in the space provided.

4. What is the main idea of this passage?

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rightsreserved.

Holt Environmental Science

47

Biodiversity

Name

Class

Date

Active Reading continuedVOCABULARY DEVELOPMENTRead each questionand write the answer in the space provided.

5. What key term is in this passage?

6. What is a hybrid crop?

RECOGNIZING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES One reading skill isthe ability to recognize similarities and differences between twophrases, ideas, or things. This is sometimes known as comparing andcontrasting.Read the question and write the answer in the spaceprovided.

7. How is a hybrid different from its originating crops?

RECOGNIZING CAUSE AND EFFECT One reading skill is the ability torecognize cause and effect.Read each question and write the answerin the space provided.

8. The crops we enjoy today originated from

.9. A hybrid crop is developed by

.10. Explain one reason why a famine might occur.

11. How can crossbreeding help save a type of crop plant?

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rightsreserved.

Holt Environmental Science

48

Biodiversity

Name

Class

Date

Skills Worksheet

Active ReadingSection: Biodiversity at RiskRead the passagebelow and answer the questions that follow.

Like rain forests, coral reefs occupy a small fraction of themarine environment yet contain the majority of the biodiversitythere. Reefs provide millions of people with food, tourism revenue,coastal protection, and sources of new chemicals. One study in 1998estimated the value of these services to be $375 billion per year.But reefs are poorly studied and not as well protected by laws asterrestrial areas are. Nearly 60 percent of Earths coral reefs arethreatened by human activities, such as development alongwaterways, overfishing, and pollution. Similar threats affectcoastal ecosystems, such as sw

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