Icd 10 For Chronic Back Pain - PainReliefTalk.com (2023)

Prepare For Payer Pushback

mechanical back pain icd 10

When CMS edits the ICD-10 manual, those changes apply to all payersMedicare, state, and commercial alike. That said, some commercial payers dont have the best track record when it comes to applying these changes in a timely manner. So its possible that come October 1, you may bill a new code and receive a denial until the payer updates its policies. Alternatively, even if you successfully bill M54.5, you may face retractions from the payer somewhere down the line. Best practice is to stick to the latest version of the ICD-10 manual and prepare to appeal, appeal, appeal.

CMS is kicking off this compliance season with a bangbut even more changes are slated to come down the pipeline with the 2022 final rule. Keep your eyes on the blog for the latest and greatest info that you need to know.

Stay on top of the latest rehab therapy tips, trends, and best practices with our weekly blog digest.

New Changes To The Icd

There has been a recent development in the lives of providers and front office staff at therapy offices around the country, and to say it has been a pain in the back is to put it mildly. Beginning Oct. 1, one of the most common CMS codes used by physical therapy practices has been removed. This is not a rare occurrence, every year CMS releases a list of changes that are to be made to the Medicare program along with any other changes to the rules and regulations governing healthcare.

Chronic Lower Back Pain Icd 10

First of all, what is the ICD 10? It is the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision and is a globally used diagnostic tool for health management and clinical purposes. It is maintained by the World Health Organization.

Chronic lower back pain ICD 10 coding requires the location and type of pain to be specifically recorded. In most cases, lower back pain is also a symptom of an underlying disease that is only coded when there is no confirmed diagnosis of an underlying condition like spinal disc disorders, traumatic disc fracture, muscle strain, etc.

Recommended Reading: Gum And Ear Pain On Same Side

Category For Icd 10 Code For Back/lumbar Radiculopathy Pain

M54 category is used for coding backache or back pain. If you are coding any pain specific to spinal region it will lead to M54 category. Below you can see a lists of ICD10 codes related to back pain.

M54 Dorsalgia

M54.0Panniculitis affecting regions of neck and backExcludes1: lupus panniculitis

M54.00 Panniculitis affecting regions of neck and back, site unspecified

M54.01 Panniculitis affecting regions of neck and back, occipito-atlanto-axial region

M54.02 Panniculitis affecting regions of neck and back, cervical region

M54.03 Panniculitis affecting regions of neck and back, cervicothoracic region

M54.04 Panniculitis affecting regions of neck and back, thoracic region

M54.05 Panniculitis affecting regions of neck and back, thoracolumbar region

M54.06 Panniculitis affecting regions of neck and back, lumbar region

M54.07 Panniculitis affecting regions of neck and back, lumbosacral region

M54.08 Panniculitis affecting regions of neck and back, sacral and sacrococcygeal region

M54.09 Panniculitis affecting regions, neck and back, multiple sites in spine

Read also: ICD 10 coding tips for COPD

Beginning Oct : Stop Using This Icd

Icd 10 For Chronic Back Pain - PainReliefTalk.com (1)

In a continuing press for codes that are more specific, a single, general LBP code has been replaced with several.


One of the most commonly billed codes in the rehab industry is about to disappear: Beginning Oct. 1, the International Classification of Diseases code for low back pain M54.5 will no longer exist in the ICD-10 listings. The more general code is being replaced by a series of codes related to LBP aimed at providing greater specificity around diagnosis.

The changes come as part of annual updates to the ICD-10 that are implemented every October.

The replacement codes, some of which are new, include designations for low back strain, lumbago due to intervertebral disc displacement, lumbago with sciatica, vertebrogenic LBP, unspecified LBP, and other LBP. The codes must be used for patient encounters and discharges from Oct. 1, 2021, through Sept. 30, 2022.

The entire updated ICD-10 code set can be found at the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid’s ICD-10 webpage. APTA has also updated its guidance documents available on the association’s webpage on identifying the correct ICD-10 codes.

“Specificity Is Key”According to Alice Bell, PT, DPT, APTA senior payment specialist, the changes are part of an ongoing push for more detailed codes a push that providers shouldn’t take lightly.

Bell says there are two ways to make things right.

Don’t Miss: Orthopedic Doctor For Knee Pain

What Is Considered As Chronic Pain

Chronic pain is long standing pain that persists beyond the usual recovery period or occurs along with a chronic health condition, such as arthritis. Chronic pain may be on and off or continuous. It may affect people to the point that they cant work, eat properly, take part in physical activity, or enjoy life.

Back Pain With Sciatica Icd 10 Code

The Back Pain With Sciatica ICD 10 code is M54.30 and M54.9.

When sciatica is described with low back pain, a combination code is available to code the condition but there is no combination code for sciatica with back pain.

The cause of Back pain can be different, should use M54.30 for unspecified sciatica, M54.31 for the right side, and M54.32 for the left side of sciatica.

You May Like: Upper Abdomen Pain Before Period

Icd 10 Code For Chronic Back Pain

If you are reading this, my guess is that you are seeking information about the ICD 10 code for chronic back pain. Not to worry, this post will provide you that information and more.

The ICD 10 code for chronic back pain is M54.5 and it is used for diagnosis purposes. The code was introduced on October 1, 2018. This code is the American version and it is necessary that it is labeled thus. The reason is that there are several other international codes which could cause a conflict if you are not sure of the origin.

There is a lot to know about chronic back pain. Read further to gain some more important information about this condition and how you can treat it at home.

Providers Will Need To Get Specific Using More Detailed Icd

ICD 10 CM Chapter Specific Guidelines I. C6

So, heres the real question: How the heck can CMS justify deleting such a commonly used code? Well, CMS has explained that its deleting M54.5 because it lacks specificity . To supplement this low back coding deletion, CMS suggested that providers use other, more specific codessome which you may recognize, and some of which are totally new. Here are some potential code replacements that you can use beginning October 1:

  • S39.012, Low back strain
  • M51.2-, Lumbago due to intervertebral disc displacement
  • M54.4-, Lumbago with sciatica
  • M54.50, Low back pain, unspecified
  • M54.51: Vertebrogenic low back pain
  • M54.59: Other low back pain

Please note that using S39.012, M51.2-, or M54.4- in addition to M54.5- will likely result in an Excludes1 edit.

Recommended Reading: Lower Back Pain After Fall Buttocks

Basics Of Back Pain Icd 10 Coding

We already know that there is a big difference between ICD 9 and ICD 10 codes. Since the time I have started using ICD 10 codes, I have seen many challenges in diagnosis coding. For example, the concept of Excludes 1 and Excludes 2, the initial subsequent encounter and sequela codes for injuries. There are many new guidelines for coding ICD 10 codes. You will also get the new Status Z codes which have replaced the V codes of ICD 9. These are the real reason for the number of increase in the ICD 10 codes. For pregnancy complication ICD 10 codes, you will get a new category of codes for coding weeks of gestation. So, be prepared with such topics before using ICD 10 codes. Today, we will learn the Back pain ICD 10 Coding guidelines.

Earlier in ICD 9 we use to use only one code for coding back pain, 724.5 . But, now with the implementation of the new ICD 10 codes, you can see that we have more specific ICD 10 code for back pain. Also, we have separate ICD 10 code for lumbar back pain and thoracic back pain. If you are coding for neck pain or cervical pain, we have separate ICD10 code for that as well.

Read also: When to use CPT codes for Epidural Steroid Injection

Treatment Of Chronic Back Pain

In most cases, the pain is treated with simple home remedies and some rest. When it begins to go out of hand, then medical attention is required.

a. Home remedies. Resting, ice packs, hot compress, over-the-counter painkillers, are the first point of call.

b. Medical treatment. If the home remedies dont fix the pain then you can visit your doctor. Your doctor will advise on which process will work best. Some of the processes employed include:

  • Medication such as antidepressants, narcotics, or codeine could be administered.
  • Physical therapy.

Don’t Miss: Low Back Pain When Bending Forward

What Does Intractable Pain Mean

When a health care practitioner certifies a patient for intractable pain, they are certifying the patient meets this definition, pain whose cause cannot be removed and, according to generally accepted medical practice, the full range of pain management modalities appropriate for this patient has been used without.

When Not To Code Diagnosis Code For Back/lumbar Radiculopathy Pain

Icd 10 For Chronic Back Pain - PainReliefTalk.com (2)

Radiculopathy or radiculitis includes the pain of that region. Hence, when we are reporting any radiculopathy ICD 10 code we should not report any ICD 10 code for back pain. For example, if we are coding lumbar radiculopathy , then you should not assign M54.50 along with M54.16.

M54.1RadiculopathyBrachial neuritis or radiculitis NOSLumbar neuritis or radiculitis NOSLumbosacral neuritis or radiculitis NOSThoracic neuritis or radiculitis NOSRadiculitis NOSExcludes1: neuralgia and neuritis NOS

radiculopathy with cervical disc disorder

radiculopathy with lumbar and other intervertebral disc disorder

radiculopathy with spondylosis

You May Like: Early Pregnancy Left Side Pain

Project One: The Expert Panel Study: Consensus In Icd Coding

In 2015, the NIH Pain Consortium established a task force charged with facilitating the study of COPCs. The task force agreed that diagnostic uniformity would be key to future explorations of COPCs. To this end, the task force co-chairs convened a panel of three experts for each of the 10 identified COPCs.


Lumbar Back Pain Icd 11 Code

The Lumbar Back Pain ICD 11 code is ME84.2Z.

Following the alphabetic index and then verifying the code in the tabular index, it will lead to ME84.2Z that states Lumbar pain, unspecified.

This code falls under the acute pain category in ICD 11, there is a separate code available for chronic lower back pain. This kind of specificity is unavailable in the ICD 10 system.

Recommended Reading: Shoulder Pain 2 Years After Surgery

What Is Back Pain With Radiculopathy

Radiculopathy can be defined as inflammation, irritation injury, or compression of a nerve root in the spinal area.

Burning and stinging pain is one of the main symptoms of radiculopathy. Pain often radiates from the upper back region to the hips and is mostly treated by anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, and muscle relaxants.

In the case of herniated nerve compression, surgery is required to treat the condition.

Icd 10 Code For Lumbar Back Pain With Radiculopathy

Chronic pain classification for ICD 11

The ICD 10 Code For Lumbar Back Pain With Radiculopathy is M54.10.

Radiculopathy deals with damage to the nerve of a specific spine area, most specifically it can be described as lumbar, cervical, thoracic, and sacral radiculopathy.

A radiculopathy is a group of symptoms of the spine area and it covers pain, itching, and other associated symptoms in it.

If a doctor provides an assessment of Lumbar radiculopathy with pain, only radiculopathy of the lumbar area M54.16 should be coded.

Most payers deny coding pain of the same spinal area as radiculopathy. If the spinal area for radiculopathy and pain is different, coding of both conditions is allowed separately.

Recommended Reading: Best Strain Of Weed For Pain

What Is Chronic Back Pain

Back pain is just as the name implies, pain anywhere in the back. It is one of the major reasons why workers stay away from work. Back pain, especially when it is chronic, could be very uncomfortable, reducing a persons productivity.

Chronic back pain could be resultant from several causes including certain medical conditions, injuries, and human activity. Though the risk of back pain is higher with older folks, it can be found in people of all ages as a result of several factors.

Causes of chronic back pain in the lower and upper regions of the back are mostly different. In the upper back, it may result from tumors around the chest, inflammation in the spine, or disorders in the aorta. While in the lower back it may result from issues regarding the vertebral discs, muscles in the lower back, ligaments, bony lumbar spine, internal organs, etc.

Why the back pain is referred to as chronic is because it has been there for a while or it is recurring. Usually, the pain must have been existent for up to three months.

What Is Muscular Back Pain

Soft tissues, tendons, ligaments are muscles play a key role in muscular pain. Ligament strain, muscle stress, or tear with soft tissue injuries are the main causes of muscular back pain.

Mostly over-the-counter drugs and ice packs are prescribed for this type of pain and usually, this kind of pain takes a few weeks to resolve if injury or tear is not much severe.

Don’t Miss: Pain In Front Of Knee When Walking

Back Pain Icd 10 Codes Under The Category M54

Low Back Pain ICD 10 Example 1A 45-year- old male patient presents to the clinic for steroid injections for his pain. He has chronic lower back pain because of trauma suffered a few years ago. Code the appropriate ICD-10-CM code for the above scenario.

Ans: G89.21, M54.5

Back Pain ICD 10 Thoracic spine Example 2Emma is a 30-year-old female who visits her doctor due to acute pain in the thoracic spine. The doctor suspects thoracic spinal stenosis and has ordered an MRI of the thoracic spine. Code the appropriate diagnoses.

Ans: M54.6

Back Pain ICD 10 Example 3Tracy is a 75-year-old female suffering from senile osteoporosis. She complains of severe low back pain with no history of trauma. Her X-rays of the spine revealed pathological compression fractures of the L3 and L4 vertebrae. Code the appropriate ICD-10-CM code for the condition.

Ans: M80.08XA

Back Pain ICD 10 Example 4A 58-year-old male patient who is engaged in strenuous activities at work, visits the clinic with numbness and severe shooting pain originating from the left buttock to the posterior part of the left thigh and extending to the lateral part of the left foot. The physical examination, neurological and muscle strength test revealed his condition to be Lumbosacral radiculopathy. What will be the appropriate ICD-10-CM code?

Ans: M54.17

Severe Back Pain Icd 10 Code

Icd 10 For Chronic Back Pain - PainReliefTalk.com (3)

The Severe Back Pain ICD 10 code is M54.9. The severity of back pain is not described by a specified code, even though the severity is explained for other diseases in ICD 10 current edition.

M54.9 would suffice the coding of severe back pain but sometimes providers choose the other specified code for this condition that is not appropriate.

Also Check: Pain In Right Knee Icd 10

What Can You Do About Chronic Pain

Currently, there is no cure for chronic pain, other than to identify and treat its cause. For example, treating arthritis can sometimes stop joint pain. Many people with chronic pain dont know its cause and cant find a cure. They use a combination of medications, therapies and lifestyle changes to lessen pain.

Acute Left Sided Back Pain With Sciatica Icd 10

When coding sciatica with low back pain, a combination code from the M54.4 subcategory is used to describe both conditions but the ICD-10 coding system has not provided a combination code for the back pain with sciatica.

In this case, a code from sciatica and other code for back pain should be used. ICD 10 code M54.32 for the left side of sciatica and M54.9 for back pain, both should be used in this condition.

Don’t Miss: Sharp Pain In The Middle Back

Treatment For Low Back Pain

Acute back pain usually gets better on its own. Acute back pain is usually treated with medications designed to relieve pain and/or inflammation, such as analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, and topical pain relief. Heat and/or ice may help ease pain, reduce inflammation, and improve mobility for some people. Gentle stretching upon advice by your healthcare professional. Exercising, bed rest, and surgery are typically not recommended for acute back pain.

The table below includes the most commonly used ICD-10 codes for low back pain:

ICD-10 Chapter

What Is Left Back Pain

ICD 10 CM Chapter Specific Guidelines I. C5

Back pain is discomfort or aches in any spinal area that can be on the right or left side of the spine.

There can be an injury, herniated disc, or spasm on the left side of the spine and but treatment can be on both sides of the body.

An x-ray or CT scan would be enough to see if there is herniation or injury on the left part of the spine.

Recommended Reading: Dr. Gregory Powell Pain Management

Icd 10 Code For Acute Lumbar Back Pain

No specified code for the term acute when coding for lumbar back pain, Code M54.50 will accurately describe condition coding, no classification for severity is present currently in the ICD-10 system.

For Acute lumbar back pain, use code M54.50 as an acute condition is covered under its description according to the ICD-10 system.

Remember, if a fracture or injury of the lumbar area has been confirmed, acute pain of the lumbar area should not be coded as pain is associated with fracture or injury of the same area.

Most government and commercial payers will deny coding both conditions on the same claim. The ICD 10 code for acute lumbar back pain is M54.50.


What is the ICD-10 for Chronic pain and back pain? ›

ICD-Code M54. 5 is a billable ICD-10 code used for healthcare diagnosis reimbursement of chronic low back pain. Its corresponding ICD-9 code is 724.2. Code M54.

What ICD-10 code replaces M54 5? ›

S39. 012, Low back strain.

What is ICD-10 for Chronic pain? ›

Chronic pain syndrome is reported with code G89. 4 (Chronic pain syndrome).

What is ICD-10 back pain unspecified? ›

ICD-10 code M54. 50 for Low back pain, unspecified is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range - Dorsopathies .

What is the medical term for chronic back pain? ›

Back pain is also known as 'lumbago', which takes its name from the lumbar region of the spine. To understand how back pain may arise, it is necessary to have a basic understanding of the spinal anatomy in the lumbar region. Skip to Play Button. Chapters. Reviewed 09/06/2021.

What is the CPT code for chronic back pain? ›

M54. 50 (Low back pain, unspecified) M54. 51 (Vertebrogenic low back pain)

What is the new code for back pain? ›

M54. 50 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis for reimbursement purposes. The 2023 edition of ICD-10-CM M54. 50 became effective on October 1, 2022.

What is a diagnosis code M54 14? ›

14: Radiculopathy Thoracic region.

What is the ICD-10 code for chronic low back pain with radiculopathy? ›

ICD-10 code M54. 16 for Radiculopathy, lumbar region is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range - Dorsopathies .

What is the correct code assigned for a patient with chronic pain syndrome? ›

Generalized pain is coded to 780.96. The new codes related to pain are: 338.0, Central pain syndrome. 338.11, Acute pain due to trauma.

What are the three types of chronic pain? ›

There are two main types of chronic pain in the human body: neuropathic and nociceptive pain.

What are the 4 most widely reported types of chronic pain? ›

4 Common Types of Chronic Pain
  • Back Pain.
  • Headaches.
  • Joint Pain.
  • Nerve Pain.
Mar 26, 2022

What is ICD-10 code for pain management? ›

If the encounter is for pain control or pain management, assign the code from category G89 followed by the code identifying the specific site of pain (e.g., encounter for pain management for acute neck pain from trauma is assigned code G89. 11, Acute pain due to trauma, followed by code M54.

What is unspecified back pain? ›

Nonspecific back pain is typically mechanical in nature, in that it is brought on when the spine moves. Muscle imbalances and wear and tear on joints over time may contribute to mechanical pain. Because the cause of nonspecific back pain is not known, treatment usually consists of conservative care and waiting it out.

What is the ICD-10 code for M54 42? ›

ICD-10 code M54. 42 for Lumbago with sciatica, left side is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range - Dorsopathies .

What is the difference between acute back pain and chronic back pain? ›

Acute back pain develops suddenly, often as a consequence of an identifiable injury. It can resolve within a matter of days, but may last up to six weeks. Chronic pain tends to develop more gradually over time, and it may become progressively worse.

Is chronic back pain a permanent disability? ›

If your chronic back pain is preventing you from performing the essential duties of your job, you may qualify for long-term disability (LTD). Chronic back pain is a common symptom. Spine injuries and other medical conditions can cause severe back pain.

When is chronic back pain serious? ›

Contact your health care provider for back pain that: Lasts longer than a few weeks. Is severe and doesn't improve with rest. Spreads down one or both legs, especially if the pain goes below the knee.

What is the ICD code 10 for M54 59? ›

ICD-10 code M54. 59 for Other low back pain is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range - Dorsopathies .

What is the ICD-10 for M54 59? ›

2023 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code M54. 59: Other low back pain.

What is the ICD-10 code for M54 12? ›

ICD-10 code: M54. 12 Radiculopathy Cervical region.

What is code M54 81? ›

ICD-10 code M54. 81 for Occipital neuralgia is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range - Dorsopathies .

What is the ICD-10 code for M54 2? ›

ICD-Code M54. 2 is a billable ICD-10 code used for healthcare diagnosis reimbursement of Cervicalgia. Its corresponding ICD-9 code is 723.1.

What is back pain M54 9? ›

ICD-10 code M54. 9 for Dorsalgia, unspecified is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range - Dorsopathies .

What is diagnosis code M54 89? ›

89: Other dorsalgia Site unspecified.

What is M50 31 ICD-10? ›

ICD-10 code M50. 31 for Other cervical disc degeneration, high cervical region is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range - Dorsopathies .

What does diagnosis code M54 50 mean? ›

M54.50: Low back pain, unspecified.

What is the ICD-10 code for M54 4? ›

ICD-10 code M54. 4 for Lumbago with sciatica is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range - Dorsopathies .

What is the ICD-10 code for M54 6? ›

ICD-10 code M54. 6 for Pain in thoracic spine is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range - Dorsopathies .

What is chronic pain condition? ›

Chronic or persistent pain is pain that carries on for longer than 12 weeks despite medication or treatment. Most people get back to normal after pain following an injury or operation. But sometimes the pain carries on for longer or comes on without any history of an injury or operation.

When do you code chronic conditions? ›

Common chronic conditions that should always be coded include hypertension, congestive heart failure, asthma, emphysema, COPD, Parkinson's disease, and diabetes mellitus. Coding chronic conditions is key to not only your patient's care but also your practice's revenue.

Is there a DSM 5 diagnosis for chronic pain? ›

In DSM-5, some individuals with chronic pain would be appropriately diagnosed as having somatic symp- tom disorder, with predominant pain. For others, psychological factors affecting other medical con- ditions or an adjustment disorder would be more appropriate.

Which is a good example of chronic pain? ›

Chronic pain

It can be constant or intermittent. For example, headaches can be considered chronic pain when they continue over many months or years – even if the pain isn't always present. Chronic pain is often due to a health condition, like arthritis, fibromyalgia, or a spine condition.

What is the difference between chronic pain and severe pain? ›

Acute vs. Chronic Pain. Pain is a sign that something has happened, that something is wrong. Acute pain happens quickly and goes away when there is no cause, but chronic pain lasts longer than six months and can continue when the injury or illness has been treated.

Why is chronic pain not a disability? ›

Chronic pain, even if it is severe and disabling, does not qualify unless you can prove it is caused by a verifiable condition that lasts for at least 12 months. Some common examples of medical conditions that often cause chronic pain and are listed in the SSA Blue Book include: Inflammatory arthritis. Back injuries.

What is the most common cause of chronic pain? ›

Chronic pain is usually caused by an initial injury, such as a back sprain or pulled muscle. It's believed that chronic pain develops after nerves become damaged. The nerve damage makes pain more intense and long lasting. In these cases, treating the underlying injury may not resolve the chronic pain.

What is the most common treatment for chronic pain? ›

The most common treatments for chronic pain are NSAIDs, acetaminophen, COX-2 inhibitors, antidepressants and anti-seizure medicines, and opioids.

How does the CDC define chronic pain? ›

Chronic pain (duration of ≥3 months) can be the result of an underlying medical disease or condition, injury, medical treatment, inflammation, or an unknown cause.

Is chronic pain has time frame to code? ›

Chronic pain may last for months or years, and may persist even after the underlying injury has healed or the underlying condition has been treated. There is no specific timeframe identifying when you can define the pain as chronic. Determine the code assignment based on provider documentation.

What is chronic nonspecific lower back pain? ›

Definition. Non-specific low back pain is defined as low back pain not attributable to a recognizable, known specific pathology (eg, infection, tumour, osteoporosis, lumbar spine fracture, structural deformity, inflammatory disorder,radicular syndrome, or cauda equina syndrome).

What is the ICD-10 code M54 89? ›

ICD-10 code M54. 89 for Other dorsalgia is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range - Dorsopathies .

What is the ICD-10 code for M54 50? ›

M54. 50 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis for reimbursement purposes. The 2023 edition of ICD-10-CM M54.

What does diagnosis code m79 89 mean? ›

89: Other specified soft tissue disorders Site unspecified.

Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Jonah Leffler

Last Updated: 30/05/2023

Views: 5928

Rating: 4.4 / 5 (45 voted)

Reviews: 84% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Jonah Leffler

Birthday: 1997-10-27

Address: 8987 Kieth Ports, Luettgenland, CT 54657-9808

Phone: +2611128251586

Job: Mining Supervisor

Hobby: Worldbuilding, Electronics, Amateur radio, Skiing, Cycling, Jogging, Taxidermy

Introduction: My name is Jonah Leffler, I am a determined, faithful, outstanding, inexpensive, cheerful, determined, smiling person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.